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What is CoronaCide
Ongoing worldwide efforts at controlling environmental contamination with the most recent and dangerous emerging infectious agent (2019-nCov [now officially COVID-19] ) are undermined by the use of inadequate disinfection procedures. This is due to widespread dependence on conventional antimicrobial formulations that offer only short term protection of surfaces that become contaminated with corona viruses. There is an urgent need to improve surface protection measures by adopting use of newly available formulations that, for the first time, deposit long-lasting and powerful antimicrobial activity on treated surfaces, both hard and soft. The CoronaCideTM team developed these unique solutions (US Patent #10,028,482 ) to take full advantage of the superior germ-killing effectiveness of chlorine (Cl) atoms. The technology does this by binding active Cl into biodegradable coatings that endure on disinfected surfaces. Compelling evidence from rigorous experiments described in the Supplemental Information (Below, pages 3-9) makes a strong case for the practicality and persistent efficacy of CoronaCideTM-treated surfaces. The formulations (CoronaCideTM) add a new and unprecedented means of attack on the environmental spread of infectious diseases for the 21st Century.
Evidence from previous coronavirus epidemics caused by human-adapted Cov variants (SARS, MERS) shows that infectious viral particles can persist on surfaces exposed to infected patients for up to 9 days2, 3, 4. Survival for 4-5 days is common.
There is every reason to expect 2019- nCov Wuhan to be at least equally persistent2. Current disinfectants, of which the most powerful and popular is aqueous chlorine (Cl) as hypochlorite bleach, are known to be effective at inactivating coronaviruses rapidly, and to a high level in the laboratory2,5. But once applied to targeted surfaces they disappear within minutes by evaporation (e.g., bleach, ethanol, isopropanol) or chemical degradation on exposure to air (e.g., chlorine dioxide).
The 2019-nCov variant is extremely contagious, and infectious viruses in expired air and other bodily excretions of patients6 will ensure rapid repopulation of environmental surfaces, where they will normally endure. Transmission by touching deposits of the virus and transferring these to the face is one of the most common means of acquiring infection7,8. If excreted viruses in droplets land on CoronaCideTM -treated surfaces that continue to display germ-killing amounts of Cl for weeks after a single application there is a high likelihood of virus inactivation to a useful degree in preventing contagion.
Data from experiments involving challenge of treated surfaces with infectious germs of all kinds- –bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi, spores—up to two months after one disinfecting treatment demonstrate that levels of kill are maintained at a high level across the board (Supplemental Information). Treated surfaces are safe to touch, and CoronaCideTM formulations are water-based, and easy to apply with traditional equipment and methods. The principal active component in the formulation is an EPA-registered biocidal agent.
Many factors will influence the duration and extent of the killing efficacy in the real world, including temperature, humidity, organic deposits (such as sputum, saliva, feces), sunlight exposure, etc. But these scientific data collectively provide a solid basis for incorporating CoronaCideTM persistent disinfectant protection into current infection control efforts not only for 2019 -nCov, but for all the germs, old or emerging, that continue to plague at-risk populations everywhere, both human and animal (e.g., influenza, COVID-19, ASF, norovirus).
Evidence of Efficacy
Persistence of the CoronaCideTM antimicrobial coating on a hard surface substrate.
Authors: Jennifer Cadnum, MS and Curtis Donskey, MD* Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Hospital and Case Western University Medical School, Cleveland, Ohio
The purpose of this study was to establish the antimicrobial efficacy and the persistence of efficacy of CoronaCideTM-treated solid surfaces in comparison to the industry gold standard of 10% sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach @ 6000 ppm).
CoronaCideTM formulation and Cl bleach solutions were sprayed onto Formica solid surface areas and allowed to air dry. At intervals after the coatings were dry suspensions of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Staph aureus (MRSA) bacteria were applied as challenge inocula. Untreated Formica was similarly challenged so as to measure the recovery of MRSA bacteria that could be expected from a normal (unmodified) Formica surface. After contact for 30 minutes the degree of killing of the microbes was measured by recovering them from test surfaces and comparing the recovered bacteria colonies to the numbers recovered from control (uncoated) surfaces and from surfaces exposed to chlorine bleach.
CoronaCideTM treatment of Formica surfaces provided high levels of germ kill not only at the earliest challenge time points, but also at all the other challenge time points through the following 28 days (the longest time tested in the study) (See figure below). Surfaces treated with 10% hypochlorite bleach showed high efficacy at the
earliest time points of challenge, but the effectiveness then rapidly declined so that by 30 minutes post-drying it had disappeared completely. The stabilization of the active Cl atoms in the CoronaCideTM clearly allowed for high level persistence of efficacy on the coated surfaces for 28 days without noticeable decline.
*Dr. Donskey is a recognized authority on coronaviruses (e,g, Otter, JA,Donskey, C, Yezli,S, Douthwaite, S, Goldenberg, SD and Weber, DJ: Transmission of SARS and MERS Coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings; the possible role of dry surface contamination. J. Hospital Infection Control, 2016, vol 92, 235-250
Antimicrobial properties of nonwoven textiles treated with CoronaCideTM formulations.
Author: Jose Santiago, MS (Microbiology), Director Pacific Northwest Microbiology Services, Bellevue, WA
The purpose of this experiment was to measure the antimicrobial efficacy of nonwoven fabric samples that had been treated with different amounts of CoronaCideTM solution, dried, and shown to contain a range of active chlorine concentrations.
Antibacterial tests were conducted according to a modification of AATCC Test Method 100-1999. All tests were performed in a Biosafety Level 2 hood. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC 6538) and Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 15597) were used as typical examples of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Candida albicans (C. albicans 10231) was employed to challenge the antifungal activities of the samples. E. coli bacteriophage MS2 strain 15597-B1 virus was used to represent viral species. Bacillus subtilis spores obtained from North American Science Associates (Northwood, Ohio; lot no. N24609) were used to challenge the sporicidal properties of the treated fabrics.
All the coated fabrics had chlorine contents that showed potent biocidal efficacy against a wide range of microorganisms. Shown in Table 1 are results for Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, viruses and spores. Higher active chlorine contents in the finished textile samples led to more potent biocidal efficacies. At 4960 ppm chlorine content, the treated fabrics provided a total kill of 108–109 CFU/mL for S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans in only 3 min or less. MS2 virus appeared to be more resistant than the bacterial and fungal species tested: at the same chlorine content, it took 10 min for the fabrics to offer a total kill of 106–107 PFU/mL for the virus.
Table 1. Antibacterial activities of treated fabrics with various active chlorine contents resulting from an aqueous finishing bath exposure to CoronaCideTM
Antimicrobial properties of hard surface (Formica) coupons treated with CoronaCideTM formulations.
Author: Jose Santiago, MS (Microbiology), Director Pacific Northwest Microbiology Services, Bellevue, WA
The purpose of these tests was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy and surface persistence of active chlorine resulting from treatment of hard surface coupons (Formica) with two different CoronaCideTM formulations applied as a spray. Formica swatch samples were procured from Home Depot. Formica coupons were used with either smooth or textured surfaces. Coupons were sprayed and air dried at room temperature, and then stored for 15min, 24h, 7 days and 2 months under normal laboratory conditions in the dark, before being challenged with microbial suspensions to determine efficacy. The antimicrobial testing was performed according to a modified Japanese Standards Association protocol, ISO 22196:2007/JIS Z 2801:2000 titled “Antimicrobial products- Test for antimicrobial activity and efficacy.”
Procedure: Each test piece was cut into squares 50mm ± 2mm each side. They were sterilized with dry heat to minimize warping by wrapping in aluminum foil and placing them in an oven at 180°C for 30 minutes. Test coupons were then sprayed with one of the CoronaCideTM solutions and allowed to air dry. Unsprayed samples served as controls. Some coupons were wiped with a sterile cloth after air drying to see if the coating was readily removed or not.
Test Inoculum Preparation: One day prior to testing, a Staphylococcus aureus overnight culture was prepared by using a sterile 4mm inoculating loop to transfer one loop-full of bacteria from a TSA plate onto a Nutrient Agar (NA) slant. After overnight culture at 34-36°C, a loop-full of bacteria was transferred into 10 mL of 1:500 nutrient broth by dragging a sterile 4mm inoculating loop in a straight line up the length of the slant. If it was necessary, 1:500 Nutrient Broth (NB) was used to arrive at a final challenge concentration of 6×105 cfu/100μL.
Antimicrobial Testing Procedure: Parafilm film was cut into squares with 40mm ± 2mm each side. Prior to testing, each piece of parafilm was cleaned with ethanol and allowed to air-dry. Aseptically the carrier test pieces were transferred into sterile petri-plates. Each test piece was inoculated with 100μL of the challenge inoculum. Test coupons were covered with a piece of clean parafilm and gently pressed so that the challenge inoculum spread over the parafilm area making sure that inoculum did not spill over the edge. Petri-plates were allowed to sit in the bio- safety cabinet at room temperature for 30 minutes. After a 30 minute contact time had elapsed, sterile tweezers were used to carefully transfer each of the treated and untreated test pieces into individual sterile Whirl-Paks containing 10 mL of SCDLP broth.
Test coupons were massaged in neutralizing solution for at least thirty seconds. 10-fold serial dilutions of the SCDLP broth in DPBS were prepared. The SCDLP broth and dilutions were placed onto Plate Count Agar (PCA) using the spread-plate method. Plates were incubated at 34-36°C for 48 hours. After the incubation period, the plates were used to establish colony plate counts so as to calculate the corresponding Log Reduction values (LRV).
Results: As shown in Table 2, the coated Formica surfaces showed persistence of high levels of antimicrobial efficacy even after two months. At two months, the coupon surfaces, both smooth and textured provided more than 3 LRV and in some cases up to >7 LRV of challenge test organisms. Wiping air dried coupons did not readily remove the antimicrobial coating.
Table 2, Antimicrobial efficacy and persistence on Formica coupons coated with CoronaCideTM formulations and challenged with S. aureus
Wet bath treatment of nonwoven textile substrate as a means of establishing high level active Cl coatings using CoronaCideTM..
Author: Jose Santiago, MS (Microbiology), Director Pacific Northwest Microbiology Services, Bellevue, WA
The purpose of these experiments was to measure the amount of active chlorine that could be bound to nonwoven textile swatches by using iodometric titration of the oxidative Cl content.
Nonwoven polypropylene textile samples prepared by wet bath exposure at room temperature to CoronaCideTM were tested after air drying to measure the active chlorine contents by iodometric titration as an indicator of the successful application of the coating. Coated fabric swatches 0.5~1 g of were cut into fine fragments, and treated with a solution of one g of KI in 100 mL of deionized water (the solution contained 0.05% (v/v) of TX-100) at room temperature under constant stirring for 1 hour. The amount of Iodine (I2) formed was titrated with standardized sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution. The uncoated fabrics were tested under the same conditions to serve as controls. The available active chlorine content on the fabrics was calculated according to equation (1):
where VS, V0, CNa2S2O3 and WS were the volumes (mL) of sodium thiosulfate solutions consumed in the titration of the coated and uncoated samples, the concentration (mol/L) of the standardized sodium thiosulfate solution, and the weight of the chlorinated sample (mg), respectively.
By adjusting the CoronaCideTM concentrations used the wet bath, a series of polypropylene fabric swatches was obtained with active chlorine contents of 558, 1080, 2952 and 4960 ppm, respectively. The results demonstrated the acquisition of sufficient chlorine to confer high level antimicrobial functionality on the fabrics by use of a finishing method (wet bath/nip/air dry) common to the industry.
Safety of MACS- treated soft surfaces for skin and respiratory exposure.
Author: Jeffrey F. Williams
The active ingredients in the MACS formulation are safe for prolonged skin contact, and do not cause irritation or sensitization. The major functional active is a registered US EPA biocidal compound. The polymeric agents used to enhance binding to fibers are US FDA-GRAS listed (Generally Regarded As Safe) and are safe enough to be incorporated into many consumer cosmetic and food products.
An extensive review of the contact and environmental safety of the MACS active compound class is included in EPA Document-HQ-OPP-2013-0220-0008. A closely related compound in the class (more potent than the MACS components) is widely used as a sanitizer in
millions of recreational hot tubs and spas in the US, with no indication of toxicity or allergic sensitization after decades of exposure of human subjects in this intimate way.
When measured using an Interscan 4000 Portable Gas Meter equipped with a Cl-sensitive electrode, MACS-treated masks released active Cl atoms at a barely detectable rate of <0.003 micrograms of chlorine per minute. This results in an exposure that is insignificant in comparison to the US OSHA occupationally-allowed rate over a working day of 0.5 ppm in 240 L of inspired air (osha.gov).
Ongoing worldwide efforts at controlling environmental contamination with the most recent and dangerous emerging infectious agent (2019-nCov [now officially COVID-19] )1 are undermined by the use of inadequate disinfection procedures. This is due to widespread dependence on conventional antimicrobial formulations that offer only short term protection of surfaces that become contaminated with corona viruses.
The CoronaCideTM team developed these unique solutions (US Patent #10,028,482 ) to take full advantage of the superior germ-killing effectiveness of chlorine (Cl) atoms. The technology does this by binding active Cl into biodegradable coatings that endure on disinfected surfaces.
Evidence from previous coronavirus epidemics caused by human-adapted Cov variants (SARS, MERS) shows that infectious viral particles can persist on surfaces exposed to infected patients for up to 9 days.
Current disinfectants, of which the most powerful and popular is aqueous chlorine (Cl) as hypochlorite bleach, are known to be effective at inactivating coronaviruses rapidly, and to a high level in the laboratory2,5. But once applied to targeted surfaces they disappear within minutes by evaporation (e.g.,
bleach, ethanol, isopropanol) or chemical degradation on exposure to air (e.g., chlorine dioxide). If excreted viruses in droplets land on
CoronaCideTM -treated surfaces that continue to display germ-killing amounts of Cl for weeks after a single application there is a high likelihood of virus inactivation to a useful degree in preventing contagion. Treated surfaces are safe to touch and it’s easy to apply with traditional equipment and methods.
Scientific data collectively provide a solid basis for incorporating CoronaCideTM persistent disinfectant protection into current infection control efforts not only for 2019 -nCov, but for all the germs, old or emerging, that continue to plague at-risk populations everywhere, both human and animal (e.g., influenza, COVID-19, ASF, norovirus).
The active ingredients in the MACS formulation are safe for prolonged skin contact, and do not cause irritation or sensitization. The major functional active is a registered US EPA biocidal compound. The polymeric agents used to enhance binding to fibers are US FDA-GRAS listed (Generally Regarded As Safe) and are safe enough to be incorporated into many consumer cosmetic and food products. An extensive review of the contact and environmental safety of the MACS active compound class is included in EPA Document- HQ-OPP-2013-0220-0008.
- Product: CoronaCide Antiviral Converter
Restrictions on use or sale: None
Contact: Birching court, 20 Birching Lane EC3V 9DJ London UK
- +Hazard Identification
- Regulation (EU) No 1272/2008
GHS regulations: Not classified as hazardous
CLP regulation: Not classified as hazardous
Directive 67/548/EEC: Not applicable
Directive 1999/45/EC: Not applicable
Classification system: The classification is according to the latest editions of the EU-lists and extended by company literature data. The classification is in accordance with the latest editions of international substances lists and is supplemented by information from technical literature.
Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008: Not regulated
Hazard pictogram: Not regulated
Signal word: Not regulated
Hazard determining components: None
Hazard statements: Not regulated
NFPA Hazard Rating (Scale 0 to 4)
HMIS Hazard Rating (Scale 0 to 4)
- +Composition/Information on ingredients
- Dangerous components: None in reportable quantities
Chemical and common name Wt. % CAS Registry
Water 97.9 – 99% 7732-18-5
Calfax DB-45 1% 119345-04-9
Halogenated Hydantoin <0.5% Not disclosed
Stabilizer <0.5% Not disclosed
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose <0.1% 9004-62-0
- +First Aid Measures
- After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints
After skin contact: Clean with water and soap. If skin irritation is experienced, consult a doctor
After eye contact: Remove contact lenses if worn. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting. Treat symptomatically
- +Fire-Fighting Measures
- Suitable extinguishing media: Noncombustible
Extinguishing media: Compatible with all extinguishing media
Unusual hazards: None known
- +Accidental Release Measures
- Environmental precautions: No special measure required
Protection equipment: Safety glasses, nitrile gloves
Spills cleanup: Use absorbent material to gather loose material
- +Handling and Storage
- Safe handling: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing
Safe storage: Store in a cool, well ventilated area
- +Exposure Controls and Personal Protection
- Limit values: Does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored in the workplace.
DNEL: No further information available.
DNEC: No further information available.
General protection: Use in a well ventilate workplace.
Eye protection: Wear safety glasses.
Respiratory protection: Not necessary in well-ventilated area.
Skin protection: Wear protective gloves against mechanical hazards according to NIOSH or EN 388.
Body protection: Not required under normal conditions of use.
- +Physical and Chemical Properties
- Appearance: Colorless liquid
Odor: Pool smell
Odor threshold: Not determined
pH values: 2.6 – 5
Change in condition: Melting point/melting range: 0C
Boiling point/boiling range: 100C
Flash point: Not applicable. Will not burn
Flammability (solid, gas): Not flammable
Upper/lower limits: Not applicable
Danger of explosion: Does not present an explosive hazard
Upper/lower limits: Not applicable
Relative density: 1 g/cm3
Solubility: Not applicable
Partition coefficient: Not applicable (insoluble in n-octanol)
Auto ignition temperature: Will not auto ignite
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Viscosity: 1 c.p.
- +Stability and Reactivity
- Chemical stability: Stable if used as intended
Thermal stability: Stable if used as intended
Hazardous reaction: Possibility of hazardous reaction with strong acids and strong alkali
Conditions to avoid: No further information available
Materials to avoid: Strong acids and strong bases
Hazardous decomposition: No further information available
- +Toxicological Information
- Toxicological: When used and handled according to instructions, the product does not have any harmful effects based upon our experience.
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known
General EU Guidelines: Not subject to classification according to the calculation method of the General EU Classification Guidelines for Preparations as issued in the latest version.
NTP: Not listed in the National Toxicological Program Report on Carcinogens, 2011
IARC: Not listed
- +Ecological Information
- Toxicity: No known toxicity to plants or animals
Bioaccumulation: Does not bioaccumulate in animal or plants
Mobility in soil: Not mobile
- +Disposal Consideration
- Classification: Not a RCRA Hazardous Waste.
Disposal method: Small uncontaminated quantities can be disposed of with household waste. Dispose in accordance with federal, state (provincial), and local regulations.
- +Transportation Information
- UN Number: DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA: Not Regulated
UN Proper Shipping Name: DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA: Not Regulated
Transport Hazard Class: DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA: Not Regulated
Packing Group: DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA: Not Regulated
Marine pollutant: No
Proper shipping name: Non-Hazardous for Transport
Hazard Symbol: None required
Hazard Id Number (HIM): None
- +Regulatory Information
SARA 355: Extremely hazardous substances: None of the ingredient listed
SARA 313: Specific toxic chemical listings: None of the ingredients listed
TSCA: All of the ingredient are listed
California Prop 65: Known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients listed
Known to reproductive toxicity: None of the ingredients listed
Known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients listed
Carcinogen categories: EPA None of the ingredients listed
IARC: None of the ingredients listed
TLV by ACGHI: None of the ingredients listed
NIOSH-Ca: None of the ingredients listed
Domestic Substances List (DLS): All ingredients are listed
Ingredients Disclosure List (limit 0.1%): None of the ingredients listed
Ingredients Disclosure List (limit 1%): None of the ingredients listed
REACH, Article 57: Substances of very high concern (SVHC): None of the ingredients listed
Chemical Safety Assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.
- +Other information
Safety Data Sheet:
Approved by: Alex Masters
ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ADR European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
ADN European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society)
CLP Classification, Labeling, and Packaging Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
DNEL Derived No-Effect Level (REACH)
DOT US Department of Transportation
DSL Domestic Substance List
ELINCS European List of Notified Chemical Substances
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
GHS Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals
HMIS Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA)
IARC International Agency of Research on Cancer
IATA International Air Transport Association
IMDG International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods
NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
NFPA National Fire Protection Association (USA)
NTP National Toxicological Program
PBT Persistent, Bioaccumulate, and Toxic
PNEC Predicted No-Effect Concentration (REACH)
REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals; (EC) 1907/2008
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
SARA Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act
SVHC Substances of very high concern
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
TLV Threshold Limit Value
vPvB Very persistent and very bioaccumulative
WHMIS Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada)
The information on this Safety Data Section is believed to be accurate and is the best information available to CoronaCide. This section is intended only as a guide to the appropriate precautions for handling. MiPharma makes no warranty of merchantability or any other warrant, expressed or implied with respect to the information or the product to which this Safety Section relates. Users and handlers of this product should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information provided herein for their own purposes.